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In 2005 the African Ministerial Council on Science and Technology (AMCOST) adopted Africa’s Science and Technology Consolidated Plan of Action (CPA), which defines the African Union (AU) agenda for harnessing STI to boost economic growth and improve the lives of African people. In order to tackle this issue, what was needed was to develop STI indicators, still lacking in African countries. Therefore, in 2007 the African Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators initiative was launched and the first phase of ASTII initiative was implemented in 19 countries. African Innovation Outlook II is the second report of this kind and it presents the results of the R&D and innovation surveys and bibliometric studies in 21 African countries.